Abstract: This study examines how scholarly research on marketing has evolved since the beginning of the millennium, and how the marketing academia has responded to the call for reform in 2006. The main purpose of the study is to find out the directions in which the marketing academia was before the call of reform and how/if the direction changed after the call of reform and has/has not evolved the marketing concept. The call for a reform in marketing academia has pointed out the number of issues which marketing has been facing, yet no proper actions were taken by the scholarly body in the past. This study investigates the topics of study which were in focus before the call of reform in comparison to the topics which were emphasized on after the call. In order to understand if changes took place, the authors used a bibliometrics approach known as co-word analysis. VOSviewer software was used for carrying out co-word (keyword co-occurrence) analysis. The data for the study was attained via the SCOPUS database. The body of literature under review is comprised of a corpus of 3,618 articles from top 11 marketing journals according to the citation index of SCOPUS database. In addition to general marketing journals, the list includes journals from some of the specialized areas such as channel and supply management, consumer behaviour, interactive and international marketing. The keyword analysis sought to identify trends in marketing research and compared findings to the call of a possible reform in the field of marketing as presented in the 2006 compilation of articles written by over 40 well-known scholars in the marketing discipline edited by Sheth and Sisodia. Through keyword analysis, the authors developed eight themes to which the keywords belonged. The keyword analysis empirically confirms and theoretically proves there is a change in trend since the call of reform which shows the changes taking place in the evolution of marketing concept. A lot of new topics appeared which the call had emphasized on, lots of the topics were left behind, and several were carried on after the call. Based on the results of the analysis we hold that the call for the reform was responded by the academia to a certain extent. These results of the study are useful to see how the academia responded to call for reform and to see the changes brought in the marketing research since the call for reform. Alongside, to the knowledge of authors, there currently is no study to see whether the call for reform by the top marketing scholars was given any importance or not, or whether if it brought any changes.
Abstract: Purpose Change is continuous and leaves many digital traces in contemporary organizations, while research on change usually lacks such continuity. The purpose of this paper is to test and explore the claim that change can be monitored through employee discourse. In doing so, the authors introduce basic text mining methods to detect prevailing keywords and their changes over time. Such monitoring of content and its change promises a continuous feedback and improvement for change management efforts. Design/methodology/approach The authors use a mixed research design, combining an ethnographic approach with digital methods. The quantitative element of the method involves applying text mining techniques to a document corpus that is representative of people in organizations, and is originally collected as part of a relatively common performance management system. The findings about discursive categories and their change patterns through time are then combined with observations and secondary information about change management for interpretation. Findings By combining these measurements with additional information about the change program in focus, the authors develop an interpretation of the dynamics of organizational change. Results showed that even in a successfully implied change effort that realize the planned targets, change does not occur directly and fully, with some elements of discourse being more persistent than others. Research limitations/implications Method of the research presents a new way of monitoring discursive change. Its incorporation into practice potentially allows for timely correction of change efforts and increasing possibility of success. Originality/value This research provides a framework for understanding how, and to what extent, planned change efforts effect organizations. Furthermore, the method developed in this research presents an innovative approach to monitor discursive change and timely managerial intervention.
Abstract: In large-scale open source software (OSS) innovation ecosystems that incorporate firms, a variety of measures are taken to tame the potentially chaotic activities and align the contributions of various participants with the strategic priorities of major stakeholders. Such taming rests on the dual desires of this emergent community of firms to unleash the innovation potential of OSS and to drive it to a certain direction, and it emerges in the form of various organizational activities. By drawing on a sample of large-scale OSS ecosystems, the authors discuss that methods employed for taming are isomorphic, and overview the emerging strategic pattern for establishing systems of innovation. This pattern involves a related set of practices to balance virtues of OSS community while introducing corporate discipline. In contrast to approaches such as open innovation, which favor isolated reasoning, they present a systemic and historical perspective to explain the continuum in emergence and establishment of strategic patterns.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the literature of social capital on career development. The various theoretical models drawn through social capital theory and the impacts derived on career progress are highlighted. Within this scope, the theoretical background and literature search on social capital and human capital management career development are deeply investigated. The major gaps within the literature, under this scope of social capital on human resources are identified. The social capital and hybrid theoretical frameworks are evaluated and suggestions for the future academic researchers have been described. One of the major findings of this research is that, it highlights the lack of hybrid theoretical models including social capital on career progress. The main proposition of social capital creating an advantage for accessing and utilizing career opportunities is verified through various researches with exceptions. Another identified gap was the commonality of the methodology as well as the commonalities of the professionals’ records under investigation. The professionals under focus had major commonalities like graduation from the same university or working for the same company and mainly the academia. The results of this work aims to enlighten the academic literature of social capital and career development with possible future research questions.
Abstract: Ağ analizi yöntemleri sosyal bilimlerin birçok alanındaki araştırmalarda önemi bir katkı potansiyeli içermektedir. Bu makalede ağ analizi yaklaşımının özellikleri ve olası katkıları özetlenmektedir. Sosyal sistemlerin incelenmesi için ağ analizi yaklaşımı bileşen odaklı analiz yaklaşımlarının tamamlayıcısı olarak konumlandırılmaktadır. Bu yaklaşımın ve ilgili yöntemlerin açıklayıcı potansiyeli gerek literatür gerekse örnekler üzerinden sergilenmektedir. Ağ analizi için analiz konusu olgunun odaklanması, verilerin toplanması, ve bu verilerden üretilebilecek temel metriklerin özgün anlamları incelenmektedir.
Abstract: In large-scale Open Source Software (OSS) innovation ecosystems that incorporate firms, a variety of measures are taken to tame the potentially chaotic activities and align the contributions of various participants with the strategic priorities of major stakeholders. Such taming rests on the dual desires of this emergent community of firms to unleash the innovation potential of OSS and to drive it to a certain direction, and it emerges in the form of various organizational activities. By drawing on a sample of large-scale OSS ecosystems, we discuss that methods employed for taming are isomorphic, and overview the emerging strategic pattern for establishing systems of innovation. This pattern involves a related set of practices to balance virtues of OSS community while introducing corporate discipline. In contrast to approaches such as open innovation, which favor isolated reasoning, we present a systemic and historical perspective to explain the continuum in emergence and establishment of strategic patterns.
Abstract: \url/files/MultilevelRandomNetworkCreation.pdf URL:/files/MultilevelRandomNetworkCreation.pdf
Abstract: The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) specification documents corpus spans three decades of Internet standards production. This chapter summarizes the results of an exploratory study on this corpus for understanding how this system of standards and its production have evolved in time. This study takes an alternative perspective, which considers a system like IETF as an organization itself, rather than a constellation of extra-organizational activities. Thus, how it works and evolves are examined with respect to its endogenous dynamics rather than by taking it as a system, which responds to requirements coming from the external environment. The author conducts a longitudinal examination of several features of these documents, their authorship, their dependency and collaboration network structure, and topics. They present a review of how the standards corpus evolves into specialized subsystems and a commentary of findings towards monitoring and managing such standardization processes.
Abstract: This paper reports the results of an exploratory study on the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) specifications corpus in relation to the changes in volume, structure, and production of Internet standards. Using data spanning three decades, the authors examine changes in the production volume and type composition of IETF documents, their interdependency, and the level of collaboration involved in their production. Longitudinal changes in the standards corpus exhibit an increasing trend in interdependency, number of refinement steps, and number of authors, and additionally reveal that standards production is of an episodic nature with regular peaks in output volume. Complementary analysis on the network structure of dependencies highlights a trend toward compartmentalization of the system over the years involving the emergence of relatively isolated subsystems of related standards. The authors suggest that a perspective which considers a system like IETF as an organization itself, rather than a constellation of extra-organizational activities, is needed to understand and manage standardization processes like this one. Copyright
Abstract: Open source software (OSS) presents opportunities and challenges for developers to exploit its commons based licensing regime by creating specializations of a software technology to address plurality of goals and priorities. By ’forking’ a new branch of development separate from the main project, development diverges into a path in order to relieve tensions related to specialization, which later encounters new tensions. In this study, we first classify forces and patterns within this divergence process. Such tensions may stem from a variety of sources including internal power conflicts, emergence of new environmental niches such as demand for specialized uses of same software, or differences along stability vs. development speed trade-off. We then present an evolutionary model which combines divergence options available to resolve tensions, and how further tensions emerge. In developing this model we attempt to define open software evolution at the level of systems of software, rather than at individual software project level.
Abstract: Özellikle yüksek teknoloji sektörlerde yeni pazarların oluşumu eşzamanlı olarak yenilikçiliği ve ürün uyumluluğunu gerektirmektedir. Son yıllarda bu gereksinimi sağlama ihtiyacının şirketleri işbirliği alanlarında buluşmaya yönlendirdiği yeni stratejiler sıkça görülmektedir. ‘Açık teknoloji’ temelinde şekillenen bu yeni stratejiler temel bazı teknolojilerin kollektif/kamusal bir alanda ortaklaşa geliştilmesi esasına dayanır. Bu stratejilerde ikili stratejik işbirliği örüntülerinden farklı olarak ‘ağ’ın kendisi bir gerçeklik kazanmakta ve ikili veya çoklu ilişkilerin gelişmesine uygun bir ortam sağlamaktadır.
Abstract: In this paper we develop a conceptual framework for understanding the co-evolution of a virtual community and a hybrid governance regime. The research site is the Eclipse software development community led by IBM and based on data collected from activities of community members, we examine the attempts of participants to construct and refine a hybrid governance structure while developing and expanding the community. Drawing on strategy-as-practice approach and institutional theory, we bring arguments at two instances of this co-evolution process: the initiation and enactment. For the initiation of the community we argue that, beyond market-driven considerations, tensions and polarisation in the existing proprietary regimes, governance structures, and philosophies promote new practices. For the establishment process we emphasise the role of member-driven horizontal and vertical structural adjustments, and the maintenance of open-source developer spirit. 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Abstract: Open source software development communities work over the Internet and provide a rich record of community interaction available for research. Structure of these communities evolve as they grow, forming specialized sub-communities to sustain knowledge intensive work and innovation. In this paper we report research results on the structural evolution of a large scale OSS community, using records of e-mail groups for a seven year time period. Our ndings indicate that birth rate of sub-communities is proportional to community size, regardless of its stability. We have further found that evolution of and behavior in sub-communities which sustain knowledge discovery and knowledge creation processes are signi cantly di erent. While knowledge discovery favors large and stable groups even if they lack focus, knowledge creation is sustained by formation of small and focused expert groups as needed and exhibits more intense communication among participants.
Abstract: Geniş ve heterojen bir kullanıcı kitlesi olan yazılım sistemlerinde gereksinimlerin tespiti zor olduğu gibi bu gereksinimler değişken olabilir. Bu durumda kapsamlı ve planlı bir geliştirme yerine dağıtık bir geliştirme ve yazılımın ortaya çıkan gereksinimler göre hızlı evrilebilmesi önem kazanır. Bu makalede güncel tecrübeler üzerinden bu gereksinimlerin nasıl karşılandığı incelenmektedir. Çok paydaşlı dağıtık geliştirme ile evrilebilirliğin birleştirilmesi için gevşek eşleşme önemli bir unsurdur. Güncel modeller içerisinde özellikle açık kaynak yazılım modeli bunu sağlamakta başarılı olmuştur. Buna karşılık hem gevşekliğin hem de açık kaynak modelinin bazı sakıncalarını giderme yolunda yazılım piyasasındaki deneyimlerden ortaya çıkan melez modeller önem kazanmaktadır.
Abstract: CL-SNA is a package for social network analysis written in Lisp. It provides a well defined data format for input and output of social network data supporting use of metadata, implementations of many metrics developed in the literature, a powerful and rich set of data export facilities for visualization and suspending the analysis session, and a robust and extensible API for future development. Being organized towards a social researcher’s perspective, CL-SNA provides an easily workable and comprehensive environment for those engaged in quantitative analysis of social network structures. But even more importantly, it aims to accommodate the very needs of researchers in its future evolution through its design principles, and to be amenable to problem specific modification. Copyright 2009 ACM.
Abstract: Market demands are driving computer software and hardware products towards increased variety and modularity. This study first reviews major developments in production regimes in the computer business and highlights common patterns in strategic management choices in attempt for accommodating market demands. Then the inter-organizational structures and business processes in IBM’s Eclipse project are examined in further detail. In this example the open source licensing model and standardized interfaces are increasingly employed to tap on external resources, allowing to better utilize strategic alliances, achieve increased modularity and economies of substitution. Finally implications for organizational design are discussed
Abstract: Standardization efforts have become an increasingly central issue as business interoperability demands mount. However research on the development process of standards is limited. This study investigates the organizational features of Internet standards developed and published under coordination of the Internet Engineering Task Force. In addition to longitudinal changes in standards development process, patterns of links between standards and authors, and extend of deliberation and collaboration were investigated.
Abstract: Despite the growing body of research on the inner workings of FOSS development, there are few studies on its relation with broader developments in society. In this study we have attempted a preliminary investigation of (1) how FOSS prevalence is related to economic and human development indicators of countries, (2) whether public policies regarding FOSS emerge in a consistent relation with these indicators in several clusters of countries constructed from the United Nation’s human development index, and (3) the relation of software piracy to development indicators. Our results point to relative significance of non-economic factors in FOSS adoption, lack of consistent policies among public agencies, and irrelevance of non-economic factors on software piracy. In addition, the study demonstrates the possibility of developing FOSS indices for larger scale diagnosis and strategizing.
Abstract: In this study we look at a body of standards documents in RFCs(Request For Comments) of IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). The cross references between these documents form a network. Approaches from social network analysis are deployed to assess centrality of artifacts in this network and identify cohesive subgroups and levels of cohesion. Our results demonstrate major groups centered around key standard tracks, and application of network metrics reflect different levels of cohesion for these groups. As application of these techniques in such domains is unusual, possible uses in open source projects for strategizing are discussed.